外贸企业循环信用证操作策略

1.时间循环信用证信用证常规要点如不可撤销、可多批次装运、可转运、信用证覆盖时间、交单时间、交单文件与合同要求一致(或虽有差异,但更有利于受益人满足信用证要求,也可接受)等条款。时间循环信用证是指首开金额较小,受益人在规定的时间内可多次支取信用证规定金额,开证行在约定的时间内增加信用证金额到总额。循环增额的主要要点:(1)明确首开金额和信用证的总金额;(2)循环时间要明确且无条件或无需开证行通知或指示。循环时间或条件要求明确无歧义,金额增额无条件,金额增额无需开证行通知或指示。如循环时间不明确或有条件的增值,应小心把握并尽量避免。(3)金额可累积本期时间内因各种原因未发货消耗使用的金额,不作废并自动累积到下期使用。案例 A:印度某电力工程 EPC(总包)项目供货合同循环信用证的时间循环增值条款Additional Cond. 47ATotal CIF value of USD xxx covers under this letter of credit in the following manner.A. Initially this LC is opened for a period of 6 month i.e up to 30.11.05 by USD 35, 180, 000;B. On 30.11.05(6 months from the issuing date of this LC), this LC shall be extended to 31.05.06(till 12 months from the issuing date of the LC) and increased by amount of USD 35, 100, 000 automatically without the prior writing notice from the issuing bank.C. On 31.05.06(12 months from the issuing date of this LC), this LC shall be extended to 30.11.06 (till 18 months from the issuing date of the LC)and increased by amount of USD 10, 800, 000 automatically without the prior writing notice from the issuing bank.D. On 30.11.06 (18 months from the issuing date of this LC), this LC shall be extended to 31.05.07 (till 24 months from the issuing date of the LC) and increased by amount of USD 16, 759, 794 automatically without the prior writing notice from the issuing bank.E. On 31.05.07 (24 months from the issuing date of this LC), this LC shall be extended to 30.11.07 (till 30 months from the issuing date of the LC) and increased by amount of USD 5, 398, 568 automatically without the prior writing notice from the issuing bank.(注:以上条款中首开金额、总金额及每次增值的金额和时间及条件都非常清楚无歧义)In case any amount remain unspent for a particular 6 months period willautomatically be carried over to the next six months.(注:金额累积条款很明确,未使用金额自动计入下期使用并不影响下期金额的自动增值)。If the date on which XXX received the P.G test certificate is delayed beyond the above mentioned expiry date of LC,the final expiry date of the LC is extended to the date which is one month after the date on which XXX received the P.G test certificate.(注:开证时经过与业主及开证行的交流,信用证中还增加了合同中没有约定的最后一笔节点款时间宽限条款)。2.金额循环信用证同样,在初次审证时常规条款要求不再累述。金额循环信用证指首开金额较小,受益人在约定时间内议付后,信用证仍恢复到初始开证的原金额再继续使用,直至用完规定的循环次数或总金额为止。循环增额的主要要点:(1)明确首开金额及信用证累积使用的总金额;(2)循环金额即首开金额是否能满足发货或工程收款的需要;首开金额尽可能高。如根据合同分项价格,某次收款金额超过信用证首开金额,则应在开证时协商提高首开金额,否则,如交单金额超过循环金额,开证行有充足理由拒付此款。特别是远期信用证,某一段时间内累计提交银行议付的金额不能超过首开金额。如不能提高首开金额,则在发货交单时控制节奏和金额。(3)无条件自动增额,在信用证金额被交单支付后,应无条件立即自动增额到循环金额即首开金额。对非自动立即增额的循环信用证,即有增额条件要求的信用证,则应特别小心。如规定增额需开证行通知,这类循环信用证有限制条件,应结合合同条款、合作方信用度等因素综合考虑是否接受此类信用证。有时由于表述等原因,对不确定是否为无条件自动循环增额信用证,受益人可请通知行电报要求开证行予以澄清。案例B:印度某主机设备供货BTG电力工程循环信用证的金额循环增值条款47A:Additional Conditions3. The LC Value is USD 18,405,874 with reinstatement up to a total value not exceeding USD 71,512,500 for all the payments. (规定了首开金额及总金额的金额循环信用证)后来开证行对循环金额的自动增额做了解释The amount of this revolving L/C is to reinstate to USD 18,405,874 under a total value not exceeding USD 71,512,500 upon each payment. (明确了付款后立即自动增额到循环金额)。结束语:信用证开立后将独立于供需双方的合同。在信用证开立过程中抓住以上循环信用证的几个要点,与通知行、开证申请人、开证行协商落实,是推动大型国际工程/国际贸易执行,降低受益人收款风险的有效办法。

邦阅网 2019-12-09 03:47:53